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Help for Heroes announced as The Security Institute’s Chairman’s Charity in 2015

The Security Institute has announced that its designated Chairman’s Charity for 2015 will be Help for Heroes. The charity offers comprehensive support to British servicemen and women who have been wounded or injured in the line of duty – a cause that’s clearly close to The Security Institute’s heart in light of the fact that many of the organisation’s members have served their country across the Armed Forces.

Since its founding in October 2007, the money raised by Help for Heroes thanks to hugely generous public backing has been used to support the wounded, but there’s still so much more to do.

Soldiers, sailors and airmen injured today will still need vital support tomorrow and in the days that follow.

The Security Institute director Richard Bell commented: “We try to select a charity partner that will be highly relevant to our membership and which we believe is making a significant difference to the lives of the people it aims to help. Many of our members have served in the military and while they have been fortunate to be able to forge new careers in security upon leaving the Armed Forces, many of their former colleagues face significant challenges as a result of injuries suffered in the line of duty.”

The Security Institute's designated Chairman's Charity for 2015 is Help for Heroes

The Security Institute’s designated Chairman’s Charity for 2015 is Help for Heroes

Bell’s comments were endorsed by The Security Institute’s chairman Emma Shaw CSyP. “We are immensely proud to be supporting a charity that has achieved so much in a relatively short space of time,” explained Shaw. “Last year, we raised almost £30,000 for our charity partner PTSD Resolution I’m confident we can surpass that figure in 2015. We have a number of fund-raising activities planned throughout the coming year and will be seeking to raise awareness of Help for Heroes at all of our events.”

Bryn Parry, co-founder of Help for Heroes, added: “We’d like to thank The Security Institute for choosing Help for Heroes as its Chairman’s Charity for 2015. The Institute’s support will make a huge difference to the lives of some very brave men and women. The war in Afghanistan may be nearly over but, for many members of the Armed Forces and their families, their battles are just beginning. We will not let them battle alone.”

*For further information access the Help for Heroes website

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The Security Institute signs Memorandum of Understanding with the International Professional Security Association

The Security Institute, the UK’s largest membership body for security professionals, has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the International Professional Security Association outlining reciprocal membership arrangements.

The relationship between the two organisations will be known as Constituent Membership whereby the International Professional Security Association (IPSA) is a Constituent Member organisation of The Security Institute with an Affiliate Membership while the Institute is now an Affiliate Member organisation of IPSA.

It’s the IPSA entity that’s the Constituent Member rather than any individuals of the organisation and vice-versa. However, IPSA members may be Institute members in their own right and vice-versa regarding The Security Institute’s members having personal membership of IPSA.

Both parties retain their own identities and legal structures and operate in accordance with their own organisational rules and legally binding constitutions.

Emma Shaw CSyP: chairman of The Security Institute

Emma Shaw CSyP: chairman of The Security Institute

Main elements of the agreement

The main points covered by the new agreement are:
*The Security Institute and IPSA will share information by exchanging appropriate newsletters, bulletins and press releases, etc that may potentially be of mutual interest to their respective memberships
*The Security Institute and IPSA will incorporate information on their websites about each other’s organisation and their respective activities. This will include logos and reciprocal web links
*The Security Institute will appoint IPSA as a Continuing Professional Development (CPD) partner organisation
*The Security Institute and IPSA will co-ordinate, wherever practicable, on mutually relevant topics and activities

Speaking about the new arrangements, The Security Institute’s chairman Emma Shaw CSyP commented: “We’re delighted to be working with IPSA. The Memorandum of Understanding will benefit members of both organisations enormously. We have broad areas of overlapping interest and this will help us to develop the security profession as well as deliver benefits to our members.”

Mike White MSyI: IPSA chairman

Mike White MSyI: IPSA chairman

IPSA chairman Mike White MSyI added: “This is the first step in a collaborative journey in which we hope others will want to play a part. IPSA is delighted to be working with The Security Institute in leading the campaign to positively raise the profile of our industry and professionalise it still further.”

The Memorandum of Understanding was signed on Tuesday 16 December at The Security Institute’s 15th Anniversary
Birthday Party.

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Chartered Security Professional status bestowed upon SIA CEO Bill Butler

The Security Institute has announced that Bill Butler – CEO of the Security Industry Authority (SIA), the Regulator for the private security business sector – is admitted to the Register of Chartered Security Professionals as of Tuesday 9 December following his interview with Garry Evanson CSyP and Bill Wyllie CSyP.

The Register of Chartered Security Professionals was created by The Security Institute on behalf of The Worshipful Company of Security Professionals back in 2011.

Applicants have to be making a strategic contribution to the development of security as a discipline and proceed through a rigorous staged assessment process. Candidates must prove they’ve reached a minimum competence level in each of five defined areas: security knowledge, practical skills, leadership, communications and professional commitment.

Once admitted, registrants are allowed to use the prestigious post-nominal CSyP after their name. They must then comply with a Code of Professional Conduct, hold Professional Indemnity insurance (either individually or via their employer) and complete Continuing Professional Development (CPD) tasks each year in order to retain the status of Chartered Security Professional.

Bill Butler CSyP: CEO at the Security Industry Authority

Bill Butler CSyP: CEO at the Security Industry Authority

The Register continues to grow with 30 professionals admitted this year alone. Typically, applicants are either employed by security service providers, are public sector employees, consultants or heads of security/senior security managers.

To date there have been applicants from the UK, Australia, the USA, Abu Dhabi, Tunisia, Dubai, the Czech Republic and Spain.

Chartered Security Professionals Registration Authority

The Chartered Security Professionals Registration Authority (CSPRA), which is chaired by The Security Institute’s President Lord Alex Carlile of Berriew CBE QC, is responsible for setting criteria and standards for Chartered Security Professionals.

This year, the CSPRA reviewed its competency requirements in order that key individuals working strategically for the development and benefit of the security profession would be eligible for acceptance onto the Register.

Commenting on the news, The Security Institute’s chairman Emma Shaw CSyP stated: “I’d like to offer my sincere congratulations to Bill Butler who now joins a very prestigious group of security professionals. The Register of Chartered Security Professionals represents ‘The Gold Standard’ in professionalism for the security industry. CSyPs demonstrate an ongoing commitment to demonstrable excellence in their work within the security business sector that sets them apart from other security practitioners.”

Shaw added: “When The Security Institute launched its ‘Manifesto for Professional Security’ in November, we stressed the importance of creating a broad awareness of security as a profession. The Register is a key component of this effort.”

Speaking about his acceptance to the Register of Chartered Security Professionals, SIA chief executive Bill Butler CSyP said: “I found the admission process to be both challenging and rewarding. I’m very pleased and proud to be admitted as a Chartered Security Professional. This reflects on my own and indeed the SIA’s commitment to the development of professional standards in the security industry.”

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Andy Bowers wins The Security Institute’s coveted 2014 Wilf Knight Award

Now in its sixth year, The Security Institute’s prestigious Wilf Knight Award is presented in recognition of a unique piece of research into a security management-based subject. In 2014, the proud winner of this highly sought-after accolade is Andy Bowers, who receives a glass engraved trophy and a cheque for £500.

Bowers has served for 28 years in the Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service and is currently the Assistant Chief Officer – Head of Community Response, a role affording him responsibility for all emergency response activities. This includes the most common areas of fire-fighting and road traffic collisions as well as specialist teams such as Urban Search and Rescue, Water Rescue, Maritime Response and Hazardous Materials.

Bowers completed national work for the Chief Fire Officers Association on the subject of operational assurance before becoming involved with the national Incident Command project. He was also one of the founder members of the South East Ways of Working Project which then developed into the Collaborative Partnership (and will now become part of a suite of national guidance documents in the near future).

Bowers holds a Masters in Business from the University of Portsmouth and is currently studying for an MSc in Crisis and Disaster Management.

Nominated by Dr Sara Thorne for the Wilf Knight Award, Bowers’ dissertation entitled: ‘Improving Tactical Decision-Making for Crisis and Disaster Responders’ focuses on the response and emergency life-saving element of crisis and disaster management. By considering the role of the Hampshire Fire and Rescue Service (and, specifically, assessing its incident command processes), this research investigates a means of improving command decision-making by first responders at emergency incidents.

Left to Right: Garry Evanson CSyP, Andy Bowers and Patricia Knight

Left to Right: Garry Evanson CSyP, Andy Bowers and Patricia Knight

Critical area of security and risk management

The 2014 Judging Panel – whose cohort included Brian Sims BA (Hons) Hon FSyI, the Editor of Risk UK – felt that Bowers’ winning paper addresses a critical area of security and risk management. The document demonstrates thorough research and a well-presented argument on decision-making for emergency responders with an extremely usable recommendation particularly for the Fire and Rescue Services.

Bowers’ insightful and original approach “could lead to great practical improvements” in terms of how our emergency services deal with incidents from the outset.

Patricia Knight (Wilf Knight’s widow) and Garry Evanson CSyP, deputy chairman of The Security Institute, recently presented Bowers with his award. Evanson commented: “I’d like to offer my congratulations to Andy who’s a very worthy winner. This award is always hotly contested and it’s a real achievement to win it. I think there’s much that we can all learn as a result of Andy’s diligent and detailed work.”

Richard Diston was runner-up with his paper entitled: ‘Does the mandatory training for managing work-related violence and the use of force for front line security staff actually protect stakeholders from harm or create additional risks?’ Diston was nominated by Danie Adendorff of Loughborough University.

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‘A Manifesto for Professional Security’: The Security Institute’s ‘Vision of The Future’

On Tuesday 18 November at The Churchill War Rooms in central London, The Security Institute launched ‘A Manifesto for Professional Security’. The Keynote Speech was delivered by Emma Shaw CSyP, the Institute’s chairman, who duly outlined the organisation’s vision for making professional security more effective: a profession that’s recognised and respected for the immense value it delivers to society, to organisations in both the public and private sector and, indeed, individual members of the public.

Everything The Security Institute has done over the first 15 years of its existence has been building up to this point. We would like to think that our new document entitled: ‘Recognised, Respected and Professional: A Manifesto for Professional Security’ carries on the tradition of The Security Institute’s founding members. Back in 1999, those founding members were willing to seek change and courageous enough to do their utmost in a bold bid to realise that change.

This is the point at which I feel our professional body comes of age. The point at which we are mature enough to profess that we can only achieve our ambitions for this profession not by pursuing our own agenda or through acting as a member association with a narrow focus on member interests but instead by recognising that the first duty of a professional body is to serve the profession itself and all of its many and varied stakeholders.

We understand that, across the sector, there are valuable relationships currently being used for narrow benefit that could be developed to serve the greater good.

First and foremost, this new Manifesto is about collaboration. It sets out a vision and a series of initiatives that encourage working together to achieve key outcomes. In working to bring about those defined outcomes, all organisations within the sector would maintain full autonomy and retain their own individual identity and traditions while at the same time striving to achieve for the good of all.

Emma Shaw CSyP: chairman of The Security Institute

Emma Shaw CSyP: chairman of The Security Institute

A Manifesto for Professional Security: The Background

Undoubtedly, these are times of immense and rapid change for the security profession and all of its practitioners. The nature of the security threat is changing. Accessible information technologies, global networks, diversification of threats and disruptive technologies will all create risks for the public, for society and for businesses in equal measure. These complex threats require complex solutions and, in turn, this will demand far greater collaboration and co-operation from – and between – those responsible for the security of assets as well as the host organisations representing them.

We also need to remember that it’s not only security professionals who are our stakeholders. Ultimately, the end user of all our services is the general public and The Security Institute feels that not enough has been done to include that public in our thinking as a profession.

There’s a need for greater understanding of what the public perceives as threats, which tend towards the local and short term rather than the international and longer term focus of the Government’s National Security Strategy. Through its professional bodies, the security profession must strive to build bridges with the public it seeks to protect. It is the members of the public who are our primary stakeholders.

Following on from this, security also must engage more actively with its user stakeholders in a bid to demystify its practices and make its own case for wider recognition as a force for good in society. On an individual level, security must strive to promote a clear understanding and appreciation of the things the security profession does on a daily basis to maintain stakeholder well-being.

At a time when security is becoming ever more ubiquitous and might be perceived by some as overbearing, we absolutely cannot afford to let the public lose faith in the professionals who work tirelessly to manage and mitigate the risks it faces and, in so doing, keep members of the public safe.

In the pursuit of greater degrees of security, it must be said that a fine line exists between protecting members of the public and infringing their civil liberties. Here, the security profession has the opportunity to be a reassuring and independent presence between the public and the legislature. We can offer a reliable information channel.

Taking this argument a stage further, the security profession has to encourage an ongoing debate around the moral basis of security. It’s also fair to say that ethical challenges will frequently arise as technology empowers the profession to gather, analyse and use data about citizens.

The Security Institute has launched 'A Manifesto for Professional Security'

The Security Institute has launched ‘A Manifesto for Professional Security’

The security profession must evolve

The Institute feels strongly that the security profession must evolve in line with the changing nature of risks and equip practitioners to cope with those risks in order to enable them to meet the challenges facing society at large. Technology is one of the key drivers of change, and the security profession – and its cohort – needs to demonstrate the technical and intellectual skills that enable effective working within this environment.

New tools can help transform the sector. For example, big data analytics might be made into working tools, enabling complex data to be turned into smart data and allowing data analysis on a massive scale that quickly provides deeper insights while creating new types of services for host organisations.

We should also consider the make-up of the security profession. Security is still widely viewed as a second career for those coming out of the military or the police service. We need to encourage young people to enter the security world as a first-choice profession after leaving school or university.

Greater and closer co-operation between stakeholder organisations is essential if we are all to fulfil our individual organisational obligations to the profession.

What, then, are the reasons why things we would all agree need to be done are not being done? First, it’s apparent to many of us that ‘Security’ simply doesn’t speak the language of business or the public effectively and so doesn’t participate in the conversations that frequently set the agenda.

Second, one of the strengths of the security sector is the engagement of its members and the vibrant groups, associations and institutes they establish – but this is also its weakness. The security sector is fragmented and lacking in clear leadership.

We also believe that the nature of the relationship between the profession and the public should change. ‘Security’ needs to develop a relationship with the public whereby the users are the ones demanding the services rather than having services they haven’t asked for imposed upon them.

Returning once more to the key theme of collaboration and co-operation, The Security Institute feels there’s an overriding need for a true and sustaining partnership between the security profession, businesses and institutions and the general public.

The Front Cover of the new 'Manifesto for Professional Security'

The Front Cover of the new ‘Manifesto for Professional Security’

Setting aside parochial interests

The Manifesto asks a number of things of various stakeholders within this profession and those who have influence over it. However diverse, large or small they may be, we call upon all of the professional bodies in this industry to set aside any parochial interests and join with us in working independently and in parallel for the benefit of our profession, our industry and our society.

We call on educational bodies and awarding bodies to join with the professional bodies and examine the future development of structured learning programmes designed to up-skill the security workforce.

We call upon key commercial organisations to work with the professional bodies and provide the funding and support that some of these initiatives will entail.

We call upon Parliament and its many agencies to establish an enabling, meaningful and ongoing dialogue with the profession to ensure it develops in a manner that’s entirely consistent with the needs of Government and society.

To achieve this, the Manifesto proposes a number of initiatives that we – the professional bodies and member associations in the security sector – can establish through working together.

We encourage thoughtful and dynamic collaboration between groups, businesses and individuals. We believe we should establish a Security Commonwealth wherein all organisations come together on an equal basis, retaining their full individual autonomy while working collectively on the development of common approaches to joint challenges

We propose that we should work collaboratively with all willing groups and individuals within the industry to set up a Security Information Service. This will afford the public general advice via a website – ideally sponsored by the industry and, possibly, Government – on all aspects of personal, domestic, travel and cyber security. This can be used to steer public opinion in a favourable direction.

The Security Information Service will share information on how professional security succeeds at major events, such as the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games and the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow, as well as on a day-to-day basis in peoples’ lives, for instance when they’re at the shops or using public transport. We will celebrate the achievements of those working for the public and support measures to address the abuse and misuse of security.

We wish to work together to improve and heighten the profile of the sector. The Security Institute encourages collaboration with universities and education providers, schools and university careers services and employers. We want to establish clear career paths that demonstrate progress from first entering the profession to roles in the top strata via specialist and generalist positions, technical and business roles.

Put simply, we need to show security to be the challenging, intellectually stimulating, exciting and public-serving discipline that it most certainly is. We can do this through the medium of a Security Careers Advisory Service.

The Foreword is written by Lord Carlile of Berriew, The Security Institute's president

The Foreword is written by Lord Carlile of Berriew CBE QC, The Security Institute’s president

Common position on professionalism

We want to work together on developing and sharing a common position on professionalism within our industry. Our joint aim should be the UK becoming the exemplar model that the world can copy. We can create a Working Group, entitled Security Outreach, and target this outreach to opinion formers, politicians and management organisations such as the CBI and the Institute of Directors. We can increase awareness through the Human Resources profession, the purchasing and supply function and Facilities Management, all of which are key enablers in our area.

We act together to promote The Gold Standard created by The Worshipful Company of Security Professionals, that of the Chartered Security Professional. We act in unison with other industry bodies to create a common point of view and voice that we will use to approach Government with clearly thought-out suggestions designed to encourage and influence the development of a Government White Paper on the future of the security profession. Security Outreach will play a key role in this process.

To ensure that our voice is heard we propose the creation of a Joint Security Associations’ Lobbying Group that would speak on behalf of all the associations – and through them – when representing the profession and its members.

There’s full recognition that this is an ambitious manifesto and requires all stakeholders in the security sector – the associations, the trade bodies, members of the press and individual members – to come together and work effectively for the good of the security profession.

Let’s recognise that we have a great deal in common and that, first and foremost, all bodies in the sector were established to support the members of this profession. There’s much we can and will continue to offer as individual associations, but let’s be brave enough to recognise that there will be many occasions when, if we are to be truly effective, the fact is we are better together, speaking with one voice and promoting a common viewpoint with the weight of our individual organisations firmly behind us.

We recognise that our ambition for the development of the profession is beyond the ability and resources of any one group, organisation or professional association within the sector. We realise that there are many perspectives on the future of the security profession and the broader sector, and that there are informed voices outside of our organisation who can claim thought leadership.

Strong contribution to the sector

We have no wish to necessarily lead these initiatives but undertake to work tirelessly to get them off the ground and to give them our full and continuing support as a willing participant. Indeed, so determined are we to make them a reality that we’re ready to contemplate a future in which The Security Institute itself may cease to exist in its present form and would possibly be subsumed within a larger, more representative grouping that carries greater authority through its universality.

As a professional body, The Security Institute is rightly proud of its journey over the past 15 years. The organisation has made a strong contribution to the sector. However, if this Manifesto meets with an enthusiastic response from other organisations, and we’re able to use its contents in bringing greater cohesion to the profession at large, then this will be our finest achievement to date.

Winston Churchill once famously stated: “I never worry about action, but only inaction.” Together, we have an opportunity before us to start something that’s truly great. Let’s not allow that opportunity to be brought to a halt through inaction. Work with The Security Institute to make it so.

*Read ‘Recognised, Respected and Professional: A Manifesto for Professional Security

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The Security Institute launches ‘A Manifesto for Professional Security’

The Security Institute – the UK’s largest membership body for security professionals – launched its ‘Manifesto for Professional Security’ on Tuesday 18 November at the Churchill War Rooms in London.

The Security Institute’s vision is to make professional security more effective – recognised and respected for the value it delivers to society, to organisations in both the public and private sector and to individual members of the public.

The Institute firmly believes that professional security has the opportunity and the responsibility to play a full role in addressing the challenges and security risks of the future. The organisation’s vision is that the sector as a whole should become recognised, respected and seen as professional by Government, the business world and the public at large. On that basis, the ‘Manifesto for Professional Security’ sets out what The Security Institute is going to do to make this change happen.

The Security Institute commented: “This is an ambitious Manifesto and requires all stakeholders in this sector – the associations, the trade bodies, the press and the memberships – to come together and work effectively for the good of the profession.”

The Security Institute has launched 'A Manifesto for Professional Security'

The Security Institute has launched ‘A Manifesto for Professional Security’

Needs of Government and society at large

An official statement continued:

(1) We call on all professional bodies in this industry, however diverse, however large or small to be more outward looking and join with us in working independently and together for the benefit of our profession, the benefit of our industry and the benefit of our society

(2) We call on education bodies to join with us to examine the future development of structured learning programmes designed to upskill the security workforce

(3) We call upon key commercial organisations to work with us to provide the funding and support that some of these initiatives will entail

(4) We call upon Government and its many agencies to establish an enabling, meaningful and ongoing dialogue with the profession to ensure it develops in a way that’s entirely consistent with the needs of Government and society

Security Institute chairman Emma Shaw CSyP commented: “We are proud to present our ‘Manifesto for Professional Security’ to the security community. This is a time of immense change, innovation and development within the security sector. Some of the changes are driven by technology, some by external events and some through innovative approaches via the constant quest to always remain one step ahead of those who would interfere with our safety. Our Manifesto is a call for closer co-operation and collaboration between the professional bodies, the forums and networks within the security sector. We ask you to work with us to make security a profession of which we can be proud. One that is forward-looking, influential and an aspirational career choice for ambitious young people.”

Emma Shaw CSyP: chairman of The Security Institute

Emma Shaw CSyP: chairman of The Security Institute

The ‘Manifesto for Professional Security’ can be downloaded at: https://www.security-institute.org/About_Us/syi_manifesto

Art and science of security management

The Security Institute is a not-for-profit organisation established in 1999 for the benefit of individuals working in the security sector. It promotes the art and science of security management and works to drive standards, educate and spread Best Practice across the security sector – a sector responsible for the safety of much of the UK’s Critical National Infrastructure.

The Institute is responsible for managing and operating the Register of Chartered Security Professionals on behalf of The Worshipful Company of Security Professionals. In conjunction with the Registration Authority it sets standards, provides quality control, appointment and management of licensees and admitted registrants.

The Register of Chartered Security Professionals

The Register of Chartered Security Professionals was launched on 7 June 2011. Established under Royal Charter by The Worshipful Company of Security Professionals, the Register itself endorses the main aim of the Company which is: “To promote, support and encourage standards of excellence, integrity and honourable practice in conducting the profession of security practitioners and to aid societies and other organisations connected to such a profession.”

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The Security Institute unveils plans to work with CPNI

The Security Institute, the UK’s largest membership body for security professionals, has announced a working relationship with the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) designed specifically to promote security professionalism.

The Security Institute will now collaborate with the CPNI and help identify opportunities to promote professionalism in the security business sector in the areas of physical, personal, cyber and information security with the overall aim of raising standards. This may include opportunities relating to education, research and the distribution of advice and guidance.

Institute chairman Emma Shaw CSyP commented: “I’m delighted to announce this initiative and look forward to working with the CPNI on driving forward professional standards. This year is the 15th Anniversary of The Security Institute and, during our time of operation, we have helped define and move forward the agenda for growing professionalism within the security sector.”

The Security Institute has announced plans for joint working with the CPNI

The Security Institute has announced plans for joint working with the CPNI

The Security Institute now boasts the highest number of members in its history and over 1,000 students have completed the organisation’s distance learning qualifications. Indeed, 2014 will see the largest number of students studying in any one year.

Shaw continued: “We were instrumental in the development of The Register of Chartered Security Professionals which was created by The Security Institute in 2011 on behalf of The Worshipful Company of Security Professionals. Applicants have to go through a rigorous staged assessment process which is why this represents ‘The Gold Standard’ in professionalism for the sector.”

In conclusion, Shaw stated: “The Security Institute’s membership continues to grow. We plan to launch a Professional Development Framework later this year which will assist anyone working within the profession to develop their skills.”

The UK’s national infrastructure: the detail 

The UK’s national infrastructure is defined by the Government as: “Those facilities, systems, sites and networks necessary for the functioning of the country and the delivery of the essential services upon which daily life in the UK depends.” The national infrastructure is categorised into nine sectors: Communications, Emergency Services, Energy, Financial Services, Food, Government, Health, Transport and Water.

There are some cross-sector themes such as technology wherein there may be infrastructure which supports the delivery of essential services across a number of sectors.

Infrastructure is characterised according to its value or ‘criticality’ and the impact of its loss. This categorisation is completed using the Government’s Criticality Scale which assigns categories for different degrees of severity of impact.

Not everything within a national infrastructure sector is ‘critical’. Within the sectors there are certain ‘critical’ elements of infrastructure, the loss or compromise of which would have a major detrimental impact on the availability or integrity of essential services and potentially lead to severe economic or social consequences or even loss of life.

These ‘critical’ assets coprise the nation’s Critical National Infrastructure (CNI) and are individually referred to as ‘infrastructure assets’. Infrastructure assets may be physical (eg sites, installations or elements of equipment) or logical (for instance information networks and systems).

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